After the mid-Qing Dynasty, the enamel porcelain was successfully developed in the later years of Kangxi, and reached its peak after two years of Qianlong and Qianlong. Before and after Emperor Qianlong's twenty years ago, the production of porcelain enamel enamel and porcelain enamel yangcai was basically dominated by Jingdezhen. This process and art form was able to Rooting, flowering, and result in Jingdezhen.
Qing Yuyao knives and painters are mostly masters of kilns and people with outstanding skills. Among them, those who are top-notch artists are not willing to be subordinated to imperial kilns. The reason is that the kilns have a fixed price and will not rise with the market price. Inflexible, and revenue is not more profitable than their own operations. Therefore, from the middle of the Qing Dynasty to the middle of the Qing Dynasty, some of the original craftsmen who were skilled in the kiln had escaped the kiln's servitude and were more willing to run their own business in order to be free. At the same time, some of the paintings, prototypes, and techniques of their work in the imperial kiln are familiar with their hearts even if they do not steal their homes. There are countless enamels and foreign colors that they have made, especially after the Qing Dynasty. The production was gradually becoming a guest appearance in the Qing Dynasty, and production in Jingdezhen became mainstream. After the Qian Long period, the production of the enamel was mainly based in Jingdezhen. Therefore, the production and skill of the enamel was not in the high-end kiln of Jingdezhen. Secrets, some rare treasures in the back of the imitation of the North Korea is not a crime, you can close your eyes and quietly took a job.
The writer believes that the technology of the enamel can be used as a folk enamel in the name of â€œGu Yuexuan Porcelainâ€ during the Qian Long period to cater to the needs of the ** çç… å’Œ å’Œ and the wealthy merchants other than the emperor for çç… å½©ç“·. . It should be said that this class has a great demand for high-grade colored porcelain. Its mood, quantity, and interface far exceed the needs of the emperor. The enamel porcelain produced for them cannot exactly match the palace enamel porcelain. Therefore, at this time, There appeared a group of â€œGu Yue Xuan Porcelainsâ€ similar to those of Shi Deâ€™s collection. The authors of this batch of porcelain believe that it is the folk â€œshanzhai versionâ€ of Lu Cai, and the market that caters to them is the large bureaucracy and aristocracy in the Qing Dynasty. . This batch of porcelain was exquisitely crafted, gradually becoming intricate and elaborate. It had complex animal sculptures and inlays. It was because of the imitation of future generations, and some of them were added to â€œQianlong Imperial Systemâ€ and â€œQianlong Tongbaoâ€. His artistic style is astute and ingenious. He wears gold and silver and uses gold craftsmanship. His body shape has become large and heavy. This type of palace is rare, many nobles are rich, especially large businessmen like to order such things. Jingdezhen ceramics expert Luo Xuezheng called this kind of device â€œheavy work pastelsâ€. The author also saw such things in some collectors in Shanxi, Henan, and Beijing. According to the author's estimation, this type of thing is the folk "chariot version" of the Qing Dynasty, which was developed for the noble nobles' rich demand for high-grade colored porcelain after the Qing Emperor Qianlong. And "Ceramic Porcelain Yang Cai" has similarities in raw materials and craftsmanship. However, in order to differentiate itself from the imperial porcelain of the palace, there are more diverse forms, painters, and subjects. Among them are the famous officials of the Qing Dynasty, Liu Ye and Dai Zhen. There are also books named "Castiglione", some of which seek high profits. They also use principal capital and heavy-duty sculptures. In short, this batch of things cannot be called "imitation," but they cater to the huge market demand." The quasi-enchanting color or the â€œcottage versionâ€ of the enamel color is called â€œGuyuexuan Porcelainâ€, and basically no such thing is used in the palace. Therefore, there is no record of such supplies in the clear archives. This is the top-grade kiln of Jingdezhen. Products, non-official kiln products, but its style is often used in the highest grade of "Yongzheng and Qianlong imperial system", which shows that it is inextricably linked with the enamel. Most of these things were produced during the Qing Dynasty, especially in the late Qing Dynasty.
During the period from the late Qing dynasty to the period of ** According to the records of Jingdezhen City Zhi Lue and Jingdezhen Ceramics History, in the 29th year of Guangxu (1903), the Jiangxi governor Ke Fengshi opened the Jingdezhen Porcelain Company to the Qing court and suggested that â€œOfficial Banking 10 In two thousand, I set up the stock by myself." In the thirty-three years of Guangxu (1907), the Governors of the two rivers changed their business to do business: â€œJingdezhen Porcelain Co., Ltd., originally planned to co-operate between officials and merchants, has no practical measures so far. The company is not as sure as it is to be returned to a commercial office.â€ In the first year of Xuantong (1909), Jiangxi Jingdezhen Porcelain Company was approved to file. In the second year of Xuantong (1910), the Jiangxi porcelain company was formally established in Jingdezhen, and its nature was still determined to be jointly held by officials and businessmen. In addition to Zhang Jizhi, Yuan Qiuhang, Rui Huajun, and other social celebrities who have privately raised funds to subscribe for shares, the official government is co-ordinated by five provinces of Hebei, Hubei, Jiangsu, Anhui, and Jiangxi, with a total investment of over 200,000 yuan. Qingyu kiln was placed under the company of porcelain and hired. Simen Gongsheng Kangte presided over the company's business. As a new type of kiln to replace the original kiln factory, Jiangxi Porcelain Co., Ltd. is a representative of the advanced productive forces of the ceramic industry in the late Qing Dynasty. It has breathed fresh air into the ancient ceramic industry and brought new vitality and vitality. A lot of remarkable innovations. For example, there have been many advances in the system, the production of glazed tires, art pigments, styles, and varieties. This is the period when the Chinese ceramic art has once again revitalized since the mid-Qing Dynasty.
If you say that before the time of ** çç… çç… çç… å¤š å¤š å¤š å¤š å¤š å¤š å¤š å¤š å¤š å¤š å¤š å¤š å¤š å¤š å¤š å¤š çç… çç… çç… çç… çç… çç… çç… çç… çç… çç… çç… çç… æ°‘ æ°‘ æ°‘ æ°‘ æ°‘ æ°‘ æ°‘ ä¸€ ä¸€ ä¸€ ä¸€ ä¸€ ä¸€. The suspicion of the system is that it is necessary to kill the head, and the general officials do not dare to use completely imitation of the official, unless this device comes from the emperor to reward, or come from discounted prices, to imitate only sneaky, secretly profit, never Dare to openly imitate. After the end of the Qing dynasty, especially after entering the country, the political system was changed. The kiln in Jingdezhen was completely dissolved. Its artisan craftsmanship or the company of the porcelain industry was turned to the public. Therefore, the imitation of colored porcelain has entered the public. A comprehensive era.
On the one hand, the number of vessels flowing out of the palace has increased. The old kings and nobles in the community have also sold some old possessions because they lost their lives. Together with the opening of the Palace Museum in 1924, the real â€œporcelain paintingsâ€ exhibition finally came to an end. The society reveals its true colors. Jingdezhen also has a large number of old tires in the Qing Dynasty. Therefore, the real "golden age" of the imitation of the colored porcelain has arrived. At this time, there were a group of imitation masters of the "Porcelain Painting". Some of the old tires used to dry Kang Jia add color, and some new tires add color. During the period of **, Qianlong "Jiujiang Porcelain" was also imitated with the enamel effect, and some works were quite spurious.
At the time of the exhibition, those who were adept at adding color on the billet were: Zhan Yuanguang, Zhan Yuanbin, Wu Zhongying, Zhan Xingxiang from Jiangxi; Liu Chunfeng, Hong Quanhua, Hong Huachen, Zhan Welfare, He Zizi, Shen Chongguang, Liu Yongqing, and Zheng Naiheng from Beijing. Yue Huchen et al. This batch of porcelain is quite spurious compared to the Qing Dynasty, and can be compared with the former in the form system, the fetal glaze, the painter, the style, etc. However, since most of them cannot match the authenticity, there are still some flaws that can be studied. For example, styles and rims, some subtle features at the bottom, there are still some old habits in the â€œpainting workersâ€ following â€œGu Yuexuan Porcelainâ€, and there are still errors in the â€œCastiglioneâ€ model, but on the whole, the real era of enamel imitation began. One of the counterfeit goods in this period mainly caters to the needs of the emerging wealthy rich merchants for the high court porcelain, and the second is to satisfy the societyâ€™s general class, especially the wealthy merchant class, the collectorâ€™s classâ€™s peeping psychology and possession psychology, Still very marketable.
Since the establishment of the People's Republic of China in the late 1990s to the present, imitation of the enamel porcelain has basically stopped. The foundation of China's modern ceramic industry was basically established after the founding of New China.
Until the end of the century, Jingdezhenâ€™s high imitation industry gradually matured. At the same time, the difference between enamel and pastels is unknown in the industry. The antique world is also groping for the imitation technique of enamel porcelain, since the 1940s. After the war broke out, the imitating of the embarrassment basically stopped. By the early 20th century, it was nearly 60 years. The people who used this technique were basically ancient, and it should be said that the production process of eucalypts was basically lost. At the end of the 1990s, several auction companies at home and abroad successively appeared in the enamel-coloured porcelain auctions, and the high prices gradually triggered the imitation of enthusiasm for Jingcai Gaoyiye.
At this time, there have been many public developers, such as Xiong Jianjun, Jiang Xunqing, and Huang Yunpeng. Their works can be publicly identified as imitations, and they also have considerable social and economic benefits. For the imitation of enamel, they mostly use Jingdezhen's pastel craftsmanship. For the Qing dynasty three-generation enamel tints, crafts, and glazes cannot be tested in the original product. Therefore, the enamel imitation is mostly similar. At the level of painters, calligraphy, and craftsmanship, it is also difficult to compete with the painters of the Qing Dynasty. It is difficult to reach the height of the time. Although the modern copy technology is first-class, the focus is on Can not reach the subtleties, the same, in the preparation of pigments, especially in the Yongzheng seven years before the preparation of imported color pigments, can not be traced to the former Dynasty, so today's imitation of the color of the more colorful after seven years of white land Painted and Qianlong's foreign style, and less Kangxi, Yongzheng's color style. Because of its color style, its colorants are hard to find at the time of the imported color materials, and the color materials of the Chinese wolfberry after Yongzheng seven years are mostly indigenous, and all of them are color materials that form â€œpowderâ€ in the future. The stronger the characteristics of color, so today's Yongzheng imperial kiln flour color copy of multi-purpose today's pastel pigment, so is the same color. In recent years, some copycats have gone abroad specifically to search for so-called imported enamel color materials. However, they only purchased foreign enamel color materials today, which were not metallic metal enamel pigments at the time. At that time, there was a long way to go before it was difficult to catch up. This situation continues today. At present, there are also imitation artists experimenting with metal paints on porcelain enamels. This method is a good idea, but it still has a long way to go in some technologies or arts. Therefore, the development of enamel enamel is better than today's image data. More, but the demand is also high, to really high imitation of three generations of enamel porcelain, to perfection, has been rare.
Even so, because of the demand for high imitation enamelware in the society, one is to appreciate the treasures, the other is to gain value for profit, and the society does not have any real insiders to guide them. In the absence of an attitude to buy collections, the price ranged from a few thousand dollars to several tens of thousands, which promoted the popularity of ceramic culture, promoted the development of the contemporary Jingdezhen ceramics antique industry, and led to an important contribution to the improvement of the employment rate of the porcelain industry. .
May 01, 2019
Due to the high price of Enamel Porcelain, after the successful development of Yoncai Porcelain, the Jingdezhen in the Qing Dynasty and in the modern era had a process of imitation. However, when did the Qing dynasty porcelain wares be copied and how did they develop? At present, the academic community has not completely clarified the issue of enamel porcelain itself. The author believes that after the successful development of the Qing Kangxi Porcelain Tire Painting, there were three processes and periods in the history of Jingdezhen.