The banknotes of the Qing Dynasty were issued by the government; the official accounts of the Ministry of the People's Republic of China; and the Great Qingbao Banknotes; in addition, the official and private bank money lines in the late Qing Dynasty and private money shops were also issuing bank notes. Among them, private money shops have various titles such as money houses, money shops, money shops, and silver numbers, and they are a local financial industry. Its business is mainly the exchange of money and printing money tickets. It plays a role in coordinating with money production and arranging silver and playing a means of payment. The printing money issued by private banks was more simple and crude, and the amount of face value was more often written by hand. The lack of necessary anti-counterfeiting measures made the currency system more chaotic at the time.
In the 21st year of the Qing Emperor Guangxu (1895), Japan invaded and occupied Taiwan Province. Liu Yongfu, the Chinese general in Taiwan, led the Taiwanese people to rise up and resist.
During this period, the General Bureau of Money and Money Administration was established in Tainan and the Tainan official silver ticket (Graph 17-11) was issued. Its value was equal to that of Taiwanâ€™s silver currency at that time. It was mainly used to organize soldiers, soldiers, and soldiers to support the Japanese invaders.
At the same time as the military incursions, Western powers also infused Western money into China and printed money for Chinese local and private silver. Their printed banknotes were beautifully drawn and well-printed due to the use of advanced modern printing techniques, which attracted the attention of people of insight in the Qing government. In particular, some government officials who have advocated innovation have discussed the court and asked the government to introduce advanced western banknote printing technology to issue banknotes in China to suit the economic needs of the Qing government at that time.
In the 32nd year of Guangxu (1906), the Ministry of Housing (later renamed the branch) dispatched personnel to Japan to inspect the banknote printing technology, and in March of that year presented the court with a memorial for the establishment of the official printing bureau. The memorial said: "... To find out that the original banknotes are good for merchants and people, it is indeed an organ of finance.... All countries in the world issue banknotes and all official papers, and all those who have value are the government's right to prevent civil society." Privately made... When the ministerial office is in the midst of reorganizing the fiscal, it is highly advisable to take the initiative and take the initiative to prepare and establish the foundation... Afterwards, in 1907, when the inspectors returned to China, they again played the method of setting up the printing office and submissions. At this time, in order to save the crisis, the Qing government needs to reunify the law and replace the right of interest; in order to control the financial economy, it must issue banknotes. In addition, at this time, Chinaâ€™s industry and commerce has achieved initial development, and domestic and foreign trade has increased. The old-fashioned banknotes issued by Chinaâ€™s old silver, silver, and Qing government have been unable to meet the needs of the circulation sector at that time. Objectively, Chinese banknotes are also higher and updated. The level of development made demands. The result was that the Qing government adopted the ruling of the Ministry of Housing and decided to establish it;
In 1907, the Qing government approved the ruling of the Ministry of Housing, the Ministry of the People's Government started the work, the printing department of the Ministry of the People's Republic of China, and the preparation work for the establishment of the Ministry of Education. In view of the worldâ€™s banknote printing industry at that time, the steel plate engraving and gravure printing technology used by American Banknote Corporation was in the leading position. Therefore, the Qing government sent staff to the United States to investigate and determine the size of the United States; the National Printing Bureau of the United States and Beijing; And level, build China's official printing bureau.
At that time, there were two kinds of engraving and gravure techniques, one was a copper intaglio technique and the other was a steel intaglio technique. Compared with the two, the texture of the steel intaglio plate is solid, with detailed printed lines, distinct layers, and printing plates that are resistant to printing. The lines of printed products are clear and the ink layer is thick. The performance of the human head and landscape painting has a particularly unique effect. And not easy to counterfeit, with good anti-counterfeiting features.
The printing bureau was located at the White Paper Square outside Xuanwumen in Beijing, covering an area of â€‹â€‹over 240,000 square meters. Construction began on June 1, 1908. Designed and drafted by the American Miracle Company, the Japanese company Huasheng Co., Ltd. was responsible for the construction and the old American flag Changyang Bank was responsible for the procurement and installation of machinery and equipment, costing 1.1 million yuan for silver. At the same time, it also set about establishing an organization. Under the general office and subordinate office, there are two offices for affairs and public works. The Public Works Department is a production management department, which consists of five sections including plate making, color making (ink making), printing, finishing, and machinery. In addition to the printing of banknotes, the Qing government also assigned the stamp printing of the postal department to the printing bureau for printing.
In order to master the steel gravure carving technology, the Qing government spared no expense, from the United States hired an engraver, Hai Qu, and five other American technicians to work in the printing bureau, and taught steel gravure engraving and plate making technology. The establishment of the printing branch of the Branch and the arrival of American technicians such as Hai Qu, created a new era in the history of Chinese banknote printing technology.
In the process of preparation, the Printing Department of the Branch of the Ministry of Finance and Industry has built factories and recruited personnel for technical training. Particularly worth mentioning is that from the Tianjin Guanzhi Bureau recruited to the Japanese who had studied the engraving copper intaglio technology Bi Chennian, Li Xin, Yan Xilin, Wu Jintao and others, after a period of study, all mastered the steel intaglio engraving The technology became China's first-generation sculpting steel intaglio technician. It was the focus of the printing industry at that time and laid a solid foundation for the further development of Chinese carved steel gravure technology.
The plate printing equipment of the printing bureau was arranged according to the scale and level of the printing press company in the United States and was at the advanced level in the world at that time. There are mainly universal engraving machines purchased from the United States (see Figure 13-12), steel platesetters (Figure 17-12), and hand-pitch gravure machines (Figures 17-13), as well as lithographic machines, printers, and circles. Plate machine, printer, camera and other plate printing equipment and generators and other corresponding power equipment. Its complete equipment, advanced technology, can only be called domestic and world-class. By 1914, the printing bureau was completed. (Colour 17-14) is a panorama of the printing office of Wu Jintao's sculpture. The Qing government did not hesitate to spend huge sums of money for the printing department of the planning branch. This move is undoubtedly a major contribution to the printing industry in China.
Engraving steel intaglio printing technology is a very difficult art that combines painting art, carving art and technique. The engraver must have a certain basis for drawing, plus his own artistic inspiration, in order to reprint a manuscript (drawing or photo) on a special steel plate. Without years of tempering and profound literacy, it is difficult to achieve the desired artistic effect. In general, an excellent engraving gravure cannot be imitated. Not only is it difficult for others to imitate, but it is also difficult for a sculptor himself to sculpt a steel plate that is exactly the same and has a good thread. In particular, the engraving of human heads not only requires a strong sense of three-dimensionality, a clear hierarchy, and clear lines (including hair and face lines), but also a knife directly on the steel plate. If there is a slight carelessness, it will preclude work. Therefore, the carving of a good steel intaglio portrait is actually a process of artistic recreation, which takes half a year to be completed. The steel gravure is used for banknote printing. It can not only enrich the content of the ticket, but also has strong anti-counterfeiting performance. The other printing methods are incomparable. So far, it still has high practical value, and it is constantly developing and improving.
June 04, 2019
Printed in the Qing Dynasty; the Ministry of official votes; and; Qingbao notes; mostly wood or copper plate printing, similar to the Song, Yuan and Ming dynasties. The face of the ticket is a vertical square with a large size. Although it is a two-color or three-color overprint, the color is monotonous and the printing technology is not complicated. Many folks can imitate. At that time, the government must prevent civil forgery and no technical measures. It had to stamp official seals on the parcels to ensure credibility and enhance reliability. This is an early and simple counterfeit measure in the history of printing money in China. At the same time, the government has also enacted a law to protect the credibility of banknotes. Through the legal provisions punishing and rewarding counterfeiters and exposing reporters, counterfeiters are prevented and sanctioned to ensure the circulation and credibility of banknotes.